• 2002 Full Day Kindergarten Report of Progress

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    • Abstract: 2002 Full Day Kindergarten Report of ProgressTABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................1FULL-DAY KINDERGARTEN PROGRAM ASSESSMENT .................1

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2002 Full Day Kindergarten Report of Progress
INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................1
PROGRAM ANALYSIS................................................................................3
SUFFICIENT GAIN .......................................................................................4
ADEQUATE PROGRESS.............................................................................5
ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM QUALITY.....................................................6
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ..........................................................7
APPLICATION AND REVIEW ..................................................................11
CAPITAL OUTLAY....................................................................................12
ATTACHMENT A – 2001 Public School Outlay Awards for FDK
Classroom Facilities
ATTACHMENT B – Language Arts Content Standards,
Benchmarks, and Performance Standards
ATTACHMENT C – Full-Day Kindergarten Regulation
ATTACHMENT D – New Mexico State Board of Education’s
Literacy Policy
New Mexico State Department of Education
August 2002
2002 Full Day Kindergarten Report of Progress
The mission of public schooling is to offer every child full and
equal educational opportunity, regardless of the background,
education, and income of their parents. To achieve this goal, no time
is as precious or as fleeting as the first years of formal schooling.
Research consistently shows that children who get off to a good start
in reading rarely stumble. Those who fall behind tend to stay behind
for the rest of their academic lives1.
A key priority for kindergarten is to prepare children to learn to read.
Ø When children leave kindergarten, they should have a solid
familiarity with the structure and uses of print. They should
know about the format of books and other print resources. They
should be familiar with sentence-by-sentence, word-by-word,
and sound-by-sound analysis of language. They should achieve
basic phonemic awareness and the ability to recognize and
write most of the letters of the alphabet.
Ø Kindergarten should help children get comfortable with learning
from print, since much of their future education will depend on
this. By the end of the year, kindergartners should have an
interest in the types of language and knowledge that books can
bring them2.
Ø Reading is the single most critical factor in developing literacy
and preparing children for success in today's economy.
Children who do not learn to read in the early grades will be at
risk for academic failure. Yet, many New Mexico students are
not reading at grade-level3.
Full-Day Kindergarten Program Assessment
The goal of assessment is to improve instruction. Careful
analysis of assessment data leads to a better understanding of
students’ skills and abilities, which then leads to improved instruction.
A system of frequent assessment, strong content standards, and
effective pedagogy, ensures that instruction is appropriate to each
child’s needs.
Beginning in Fall 2001, all FDK programs used the New Mexico
State Transitional Pre-Post Test Reading Assessment as a standard
National Research Council. (1999). Starting out right. Washington, DC:
National Academy Press
National Research Council. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young
children. Washington, DC: National Academy7 Press.
New Mexico State Department of Education. (2000). Reading and literacy in
New Mexico. Carlos Romero (Ed.). Santa Fe, NM
New Mexico State Department of Education 1
August 2002
pre- and post early reading assessment. This assessment was
developed to measure student proficiency on the New Mexico
Language Arts Content Standards, Benchmarks, and Performance
Standards in reading and early literacy. An analysis of the post-test
results enables teachers to assess students’ reading abilities near the
end of the school year and to look at changes in performance over
time. In addition to this statewide FDK assessment, schools can utilize
additional assessments to further gauge progress and diagnose early
difficulties for rapid intervention.
The State Transitional Pre-and Post-test contains nine subtests
constructed developmentally by grade level. The assessment is
designed as an observational checklist to be used with students
individually or in a small group setting. The nine subtests are aligned
with the essential components of reading and include:
Ø Concepts of Print
Ø Phonemic Awareness
Ø Alphabet/Letter Knowledge
Ø Phonics
Ø Sight Vocabulary
Ø Fluency
Ø Grammar and Text Structure
Ø Listening Comprehension
Ø Reading Comprehension
These subtests reflect the national consensus on the
components of reading and the appropriate knowledge and abilities
required to ensure that all students are successful readers by the end
of third grade. There are fourteen specific kindergarten items that
address the core expectations for learning how to read at this grade
level. All FDK programs were required to pre- and post test their
kindergarten students on these items to measure proficiency. The test
allowed students to go beyond the required kindergarten items thereby
measuring grade-level proficiencies at higher grades. All FDK
programs received a complete test administration packet with
instructions for administering the assessment and requirements for
reporting results.
The results of these assessments were sent to SDE to be
analyzed to determine if the programs were successfully meeting the
standards necessary to ensure adequate progress, and were, therefore,
eligible for continued funding. All students enrolled in state-funded
New Mexico State Department of Education 2
August 2002
2002 Full Day Kindergarten Report of Progress
full-day Kindergarten literacy readiness programs participated;
however only the results for students who have taken both the pre-test
and the post-test were required to be submitted to the SDE. There
were 10,689 kindergarten students in 2002FDK programs based on the
40th day report. There were 9,727 students, or 91%, who successfully
completed both the pre- and post-test. The remaining 962 student
results that were not part of the final report are due to the following
factors; (a) student mobility, (b) students tested through the Alternative
Assessment for students with special needs, and (c) test
accommodations that provide the administration of the test for English
Language Learners. Of these factors, student mobility accounts for
some of the highest percentage (90%) of incomplete pre- and post-test
correlated results. Two schools did not submit adequate post-test data
to determine gain.
Program Analysis
A cross-agency team, representing early childhood
development, early literacy, program assessment and English
language development, examined the post-test results of all FDK
programs to determine the degree to which the programs met the
standards and demonstrated sufficient student gain. All programs
were required to submit the pre- and post-test results of the required
fourteen kindergarten test items that included test items that exceeded
the kindergarten requirements (e.g. test items for grades one, two and
three) when appropriate. The following summarizes the results of the
Insufficient gain to meet kindergarten standards 8
Sufficient gain to meet kindergarten standards 132
More than sufficient gain to meet kindergarten standards 30
New Mexico State Department of Education 3
August 2002
FDK 2001-02 Year-End Assessment
Number of 100
Programs 50
Insufficient Sufficient More than
gain gain sufficient
Ninety-five percent of FDK programs show student gains in
acquiring the language and early literacy skills needed to enter first
grade and become proficient readers. One hundred thirty-two schools
show sufficient gain, and thirty schools demonstrate gains that are
more than sufficient in meeting the standards. However, eight schools
are unable to demonstrate that their students have made sufficient gain
needed to meet the standards.
Required Actions for Programs Not Making Sufficient
All FDK programs must provide verification to the SDE that they
served children based on identified criteria and that they implemented
a full-day kindergarten program that included:
Ø A comprehensive, research-based, early literacy program;
Ø Literacy-specific screening and assessment measures for
participating students; and
Ø Comprehensive professional development for staff.
If the SDE determines a program is not meeting benchmarks
necessary to ensure student progress, SDE will notify the school
district that failure to meet the performance standards will result in the
cessation of funding.
The SDE implemented the following required actions for those
schools that did not demonstrate sufficient student gain in meeting the
kindergarten performance standards:
New Mexico State Department of Education 4
August 2002
2002 Full Day Kindergarten Report of Progress
Ø School is notified of insufficient student gains based on post-
test results;
Ø School and SDE conduct a thorough program analysis to
identify program deficiencies in the following areas:
§ Identification of student needs
§ Program design
§ Professional development
§ Appropriate assessments
§ Use of collected data to guide program improvement
Ø School modifies program based on findings.
Districts whose schools lose funding must reapply for funds.
2001 Schools Designated as Not Having Made Adequate
At the end of the 2001 school year there were five schools that
were designated as schools that had not shown adequate gains based
on the pre- and post-test data. To assist the five programs that did not
make sufficient gains in meeting the Kindergarten Language Arts
Performance Standards the SDE, in September 2001, implemented the
review process as outlined in the Required Actions section of the FDK
regulation. These programs were notified and the following actions
were implemented:
Ø October 2001, SDE met with the five schools to discuss
assessment results and determine program needs
Ø January 30, 2002 schools developed a specific plan to address
insufficient gain
Ø The schools implemented their action plan
Ø SDE provided technical assistance during the implementation of
the plan
Ø Follow-up site visits were conducted to monitor progress in
March and April of 2002
Analysis of pre and post-test results in 2002 indicate that all five
programs have experienced notable improvements. Three programs
made sufficient gain, while two programs made more then sufficient
gain toward meeting kindergarten standards.
New Mexico State Department of Education 5
August 2002
Elements of Program Quality
Many approaches are used to prepare young children to learn
how to read and write. What happens in kindergarten influences
reading fluency, word recognition, and the use of letter-sound
correspondence. Without this foundation, children will never be able
to read comfortably and competently. To become real readers, children
need well-integrated instruction that focuses on identifying words
using sound-spelling correspondences and sight word recognition;
using previous knowledge, vocabulary, and comprehension strategies
to read for meaning; and reading with fluency. Good teachers help
children master these skills with an engaging variety of activities4.
A well-designed, standards-based curriculum creates the
foundation for quality educational experiences. However, skilled
teachers must be able to tailor learning experiences to meet individual
needs. Ultimately, teachers, and administrators are responsible for
making sure that reading instruction is coherent, consistent, and
meaningful. Public schools that provide a FDK program include:
Ø A comprehensive research-based early literacy program
Ø Essential early literacy skills instruction that includes oral
language development, phonemic awareness, alphabet and
letter knowledge, concepts of print and writing, and
comprehension and appreciation of stories and books
Ø Child-centered programs based on developmentally
appropriate teaching practices.
In the FDK program, the standards clearly state the learning
expectations. They address the essential components of early reading
readiness and are based on current scientific research on reading.
Programs develop and implement standards-based curriculum using
data from assessment that identifies the specific learning needs of the
kindergarten students. Teachers use an array of effective instructional
strategies that incorporate an understanding of the cultural and
linguistic context of the students and ensure that all students have the
learning opportunities they need to acquire the concepts and skills
necessary to establish the foundation for success in early reading.
On-going classroom assessment is used to monitor individual student
progress and to make instructional decisions when students are
experiencing difficulties. Once identified, rapid and effective
intervention is available to address specific concepts or skills needed
for individual student proficiency.
National Institute of Child and Human Development. (2000). Report of the
National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read. Rockville, MD
New Mexico State Department of Education 6
August 2002
2002 Full Day Kindergarten Report of Progress
Standards-based FDK programs, therefore, must carefully
coordinate essential literacy skills with teaching practices and learning
environments that are conducive to acquiring these important skills.
On-going assessments are to be used to guide instruction. Pre- and
post-tests measuring student progress towards performance
standards are used to measure program effectiveness. The SBE
intends that FDK programs be the first step in a sequential K-2 early
literacy approach to teaching reading.
Professional Development
To support the statewide implementation of FDK programs,
teachers, teaching assistants and administrators, have an array of
opportunities to participate in professional development that is
consistent with scientific research and its implications for instruction.
Since many New Mexico children enter kindergarten speaking a
language other than English, professional development must include
best practices of English as a Second Language (ESL)/English
Language Learner (ELL) instruction. In addition, effective professional
development includes the principles of peer and expert coaching for
ongoing professional growth to build the capacity needed at the local
site for sustained program implementation K-2. The following
describe specific statewide professional development opportunities:
The PD2000 Professional Development Summer Literacy
Initiative brought together teams of teachers and administrators,
representing 45 New Mexico school districts for an Institute focused on
effective reading programs, June 18-20, 2001. Over two hundred fifty
participants attended a series of sessions designed to increase their
knowledge of the research foundation in reading, the role of
assessment in the identification of – and intervention for – students
that are experiencing reading difficulties, and the role of the
administrator as an instructional leader in reading improvement.
Specific session topics included:
Ø Reading Assessment
Ø Technology and Literacy
Ø Primary Reading Foundations
Ø How to Create a Three-Year Reading Improvement Plan for Your
Ø Primary Reading: Instructional Strategies and Programming
Ø Creating positive and productive learning environments
The 2001 New Mexico State Learning Conference (SLC) provides
an early literacy strand for kindergarten, and early literacy teachers,
New Mexico State Department of Education 7
August 2002
teaching assistants and administrators. Over twelve hundred New
Mexico educators attended the 2001 SLC and had an opportunity to
attend sessions that included:
Ø Meeting Literacy Standards: Providing the Foundational Literacy
Skills for Reading Success
Ø Using the Results of the New Mexico Reading Assessment to
Guide Instruction
Ø Learning Letter Sounds
Ø Digital Literacy Portfolios
In addition to these open sessions, a set of special sessions
were designed to assist FDK programs use their pre-test assessment
data more effectively to (a) understand individual student needs, and
(b) design more effective FDK instructional programs. All FDK
program directors were informed of these special three-hour workshop
sessions and attendance was excellent. Understanding assessment
data and how to interpret that data for effective instructional decisions
is a critical skill area that program providers have identified as a
priority. In response, SDE secured an external early literacy evaluator
to design and conduct the FDK assessment workshops. The
workshops focused on:
Ø Full-Day Kindergarten Literacy Readiness Assessment
Ø Developing Student Instructional Plans
Ø Establishing an Instructional Sequence
Ø Using the Transitional Reading Pretest
SDE administers numerous early literacy programs that offer
professional development opportunities for K-3 grade educators. FDK
teachers are often included in these professional development
experiences, thereby helping to ensure the systematic implementation
of a sequential, comprehensive early literacy program K-2. These
opportunities include:
Ø Even Start Program activities for parents and their children
Ø Family Literacy parent education
Ø Temporary Assistance to Need Families: The School-Age
Program (TANF) – Before and After School programs activities
for students and families
New Mexico State Department of Education 8
August 2002
2002 Full Day Kindergarten Report of Progress
Technology plays a critical role in extending professional
development5 to early literacy educators throughout New Mexico.
Often teachers are limited in their access to quality professional
development experiences, thus, SDE has developed web based
professional development resources through the Statewide Reading
Initiative web site. The web site offers national experts speaking about
the essential components of early literacy development, instructional
approaches and strategies, assessment information and
methodologies, and general information and resources for professional
growth. Additional information regarding SDE literacy programs and
initiatives is available on the new Curriculum, Instruction and Learning
Technologies website.6
The second session of the 44th New Mexico Legislature
appropriated funds to establish optional full-day kindergarten
programs (FDK), on a five-year phase-in schedule [22-2-19 NMSA 1978].
The purpose of the initiative is to address the readiness skills New
Mexico children need to become successful readers. $8.5 million was
appropriated to initially fund programs in FY01. Subsequent funding in
FY02 included $8.5 million new funding plus an additional $4.6 million.
The total funding allocation over the two years of program
implementation was $21.6 million for one hundred seventy programs.
The Full Day Kindergarten (FDK) legislation [Section 22-2-1,
Subsection B 22-2-2 Subsection E NMSA 1978] requires the State
Board of Education (SBE) and the Department of Education (SDE) to
adopt rules for the development, implementation, and monitoring of
FDK programs. Programs must serve the children most in need based
upon poverty, mobility, and limited English proficiency. This
legislation further stipulates that the SDE must conduct an annual
evaluation of program results to determine whether students are
meeting kindergarten performance standards. If data indicate that
students are not meeting the performance standards, the SDE must
notify the school district that failure to meet the performance standards
will result in a cessation of funding for the following year.
The FDK Literacy Readiness Program is a comprehensive
approach to ensure that all kindergarten students have access to the
learning opportunities they need to become proficient readers and,
ultimately, proficient students. The FDK program uses a standards-
based approach that sets forth a system that includes:
Ø Curriculum grounded in current scientifically-based research
that identifies the essential components of reading instruction;
New Mexico State Department of Education 9
August 2002
Ø New Mexico standards that address appropriate kindergarten
early literacy skills and specify the skills and abilities
kindergarten students are expected to learn;
Ø Reading programs, materials, and resources that ensure all
kindergarten children have adequate experiences to develop
early literacy skills;
Ø Assessment that provides specific information on reading skills
to inform instruction and allows teachers to screen students
who may be at-risk for reading difficulties and to provide early
and effective intervention; and
Ø Instructional pedagogy that is relevant and appropriate for the
cultural and linguistic diversity of New Mexico’s students.
The New Mexico State Board of Education-adopted Kindergarten
Content Standards, Benchmarks, and Performance Standards in
reading are the ‘bar’ against which program effectiveness is measured.
These standards reflect the current national research on reading and
include opportunities:
Ø To expand the use of oral and printed language;
Ø To understand and manipulate language patterns;
Ø To learn the relationship between the sounds and letters;
Ø To practice reading stories; and
Ø To expand their functional vocabulary.
Many New Mexico students enter kindergarten speaking a
language other than English and are not prepared to begin using the
language of classroom instruction. For many of these students,
developing oral language is the precursor to becoming successful
readers. FDK programs must address the language development
needs of their students through structured, explicit language
development strategies that build upon the rich cultural and linguistic
backgrounds their students bring to the classroom.
In addition to the development of oral language, the standards
address the most important early literacy elements needed to enter
first grade – book and print awareness, phonemic awareness, and
letter and word knowledge. Ultimately, teachers must ensure that
each child will read fluently, enjoy reading, and use reading to learn.
New Mexico State Department of Education 10
August 2002
2002 Full Day Kindergarten Report of Progress
Literacy is a national priority
The SBE adopted a literacy policy7 to
and must become the priority guide the full implementation of the FDK
for all New Mexico citizens, Literacy Readiness Program. This
parents, and educators. policy supports the SBE’s focus on
Literacy impacts every early literacy (Strategic Goal 1.3) and
person’s future success and
his/her ability to function guides the work of the SDE, local school
academically, in the world of boards, educators, and communities in
work, and as an effective improving literacy skills for all students.
citizen (State Board of
Education, 2000).
Application and Review
Applications for program funding were reviewed based upon the
following criteria:
Ø A systematic process to use data based upon the required
assessment instruments to assess students instructional
Ø An early literacy curriculum, framework, or program to address
the New Mexico Language Arts Content Standards,
Benchmarks, and Performance Standards for kindergarten;
Ø Professional development for teachers and administrators in the
essential components of reading instruction to support early
literacy program goals; and
Ø A certification that necessary classroom facilities are available
to conduct the program.
The legislation requires that “priority will be given to those
districts that serve children in schools with the highest proportion of
students most in need based upon indicators in the at–risk factor.” All
public elementary and grade-level schools with approved applications
were matched to an index and ranked according to three indicators:
free and reduced lunch rates, mobility, and percentage of students with
limited English proficiency (LEP). The initial appropriation for Year 1
implementation (2000-2001) allowed seventy nine schools to be funded.
Funding for Year 2 (2001-2002) added ninety-one schools for a total of
one-hundred seventy funded schools.
SBE Literacy Policy available at:
New Mexico State Department of Education 11
August 2002
Capital Outlay
The FDK Statute [Section 22-2-1.B and 22-2-2.E, NMSA 1978]
requires that, as a condition of program approval, school districts must
submit an application that verifies there is available classroom space
to conduct a FDK program. Priority for program funding is based on
those schools that serve the highest proportion of students most in
need as measured by poverty, student mobility, and the percentages of
children that are designated as Limited English Proficient (LEP). SDE
develops an annual matrix that ranks all public elementary schools
based on these factors and schools that submit FDK applications that
meet all program requirements are awarded funding according to the
ranked matrix. A school that does not have available classroom space
to conduct a FDK program is not eligible to receive program funding.
In response the 45th legislature, through HB089 appropriated $5
million in Public School Critical Capital Outlay (PSCCO) funds to
provide classroom facilities for FDK programs. The funds were
designated to support those schools, eligible for FDK program funding,
but not able to conduct a program due to lack of classroom facilities.
Districts could apply for funds to build additional classrooms, renovate
existing classrooms or purchase portable classrooms for FDK
programs. All schools were notified of the availability of the new funds
and a coordinated review process was developed to ensure that the
PSCCO awards were aligned with the criteria for FDK program awards.
Twenty-six school districts submitted applications for FDK
programs at eighty-six school sites. Of these, fifteen schools were to
construct the required classrooms with local resources or had
sufficient space to implement full-day kindergarten. The remaining
seventy-one school applications totaled $32.7 million for one hundred
forty-seven full-day kindergarten classrooms. Overall, funds were
awarded to construct thirty-eight new classrooms, convert five existing
classrooms, and purchase and place twenty-four portable classrooms
at thirty-two school sites in eleven districts.
The first and second year analyses of the New Mexico FDK
initiative indicate that programs are providing the critical foundation
that many children need for future success. Schools are reporting
encouraging gains in pre- and post assessments, and children, in the
aggregate are better equipped to enter first grade.
New Mexico schools must continue to provide comprehensive
literacy programs. Learning to read and write requires a sequential,
comprehensive approach that addresses the building blocks of
New Mexico State Department of Education 12
August 2002
2002 Full Day Kindergarten Report of Progress
reading in the early grades and continues to develop fluency,
comprehension and a love of reading as students move through their
K-12 academic experiences. Children who have access to quality
curricula and skilled teachers from kindergarten through third grade
have a much brighter academic future.
Ninety-five percent of 2002 FDK programs show sufficient
student gain in meeting the kindergarten early literacy performance
standards. Teachers are receiving professional development in early
literacy skills and are using assessment data to identify student
needs, develop literacy-based kindergarten programs, and measure
New Mexico State Department of Education 13
August 2002

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